VI Walter Scott (1771-1832)
1. introduction (1) born in Edinburgh (2) a close contact with traditions of border war & the ballads; (3) the creator and master of the historical novel; (4) his death in 1832 --- the end of Romanticism; Note: historical novels (1) a specific historical period;
(2) characters --- real or imagined; 2. Works 2.1 subject matter --- three groups a. on the Scottish history; “Rob Roy” (1817) b. on the English history; “Ivanhoe” (1820) c. on the history of European
VII Jane Austen (1775 --- 1817)
(1) Her authorship was little known during her life time; (2) She wrote novels while doing family chores; (3) She was not successful with the publishers;
(4) Walter Scott admired her a lot;
Northanger Abbey Sense and Sensibility Pride and Prejudice Mansfield Park Emma Persuasion
3. Pride and Prejudice (1) characters
(2) the exhibition of pride
(3) the exhibition of prejudice (4) a round ending with 3 pairs: Lydia --- Wickham Jane --- Bingley Elizabeth --- Darcy
? Question: What is Jane Austen's main literary concern?
? (1) Her main literary concern is about human beings
in their personal relationships. Because of this, her novels have a universal significance. She believes that a man's relationship to his wife and children is as important a part of his life as his concerns about
his belief and career.
?(2) She is particularly preoccupied with the relationship between men and women in love. Stories of love and marriage provide the major themes in all her novels, in which female characters are always playing an active part.
? (3) As a novelist, Austen writes within a very narrow sphere. The subject matter, the character range, the social setting and plots are all restricted to the provincial life of the late 18th century England, concerning three or four landed gentry families with their daily routine life: relationships with members
of their own family and with their friends, dancing
parties, tea parties, picnics and gossips.
?In Pride and Prejudice, Jane Austen explored three kinds of motivations of marriage the middle-class people had in the second half of the 18th century. Try to make a brief discussion about them with specific examples from the novel. Make comments on Austen's attitude towards these motivations.
?First, there is marriage merely for fortune, money and social rank. This is to be found in Miss Bingley's pursuit of Darcy, in Charlotte Lucas' marriage to Mr. Collins.
?The second is the tendency to marry for beauty, attraction and passion regardless of economic conditions or personal merits. This is generally known as "love at first sight". This is to be found in the marriage of Mr. Bennet and Mrs. Bennet, Lydia and Wickham.
?The third is the ideal marriage, which is a love match with considerations of the lover's personal merits and economic conditions. Such perfect happiness is to be found in the marriage of Darcy to Elizabeth, Mr. Bingley to Jane.
?What Jane Austen tries to say is that it is wrong to marry just for money or for beauty, but it is also wrong to marry without consideration of economic conditions. Of the three types, she prefers the last one.
? What are the major features of the Romantic Movement in Britain?
? The English Romantic period is an age of poetry. Blake, Wordsworth, Coleridge, Byron, Shelley and Keats are the major Romantic poets. ? They started a rebellion against the neoclassical literature, which was later regarded as the poetic revolution. They believe that poetry could purify both individual souls and the society.
? The Lyrical Ballads by Wordsworth and Coleridge in 1798 acts as a manifesto for
the English Romanticism.
? The Romantics not only eulogize the faculty
of imagination, but also stress the concept
of spontaneity and inspiration, regarding them as something crucial for true poetry.
? The natural world comes to the forefront
of the poetic imagination. Nature is not
only the major source of poetic imagery,
but also provide the dominant subject matter. ? They advocate freedom from classical rules and traditions. ? Romantics turn to the humble people and their everyday life for subjects.
? Romantic writers are always seeking for the Absolute, the Ideal through the transcendence of the actual. ? They prefer to write about something exotic, remote, mysterious, and weird.